Twice Paul raises the question: “Did God reject His people?” Twice he answers: “By no means!” In Romans 11:1-15, Paul gives five reasons why it is evident that God has not forgotten His people, the Jews.
In Romans 10, Paul is answering the question of why some people who have little knowledge are saved while some who have much knowledge are not saved. He gave part of his answer in Romans 9. All of us are born lost, and God in His mercy and grace chooses to call some people to him. Paul continues his answer into chapter 10. Taking religion seriously is not the answer.
On what is the basis does God choose the elect? Paul’s answer is that God — as God — has a sovereign right to choose who receives mercy.
Romans 9-11 must be read as a unit that builds to a wonderful climax. It contains some of the most difficult material in the Bible.
Paul argues that because of the activity of the Spirit, we can have confidence that everything that happens to us is in our own best interests.