There are 2 consequences to our sin: 1) We experience death and futility. 2) Our rebellion is wrong and we now owe a debt to justice that must be paid. Justification is the payment of that debt.
In Romans 13, Paul continues in his application of how we should live in light of the gospel. In this often-discussed and debated passage, he explains how to be good citizens: submission, fearlessness and conscience.
Twice Paul raises the question: “Did God reject His people?” Twice he answers: “By no means!” In Romans 11:1-15, Paul gives five reasons why it is evident that God has not forgotten His people, the Jews.
In Romans 10, Paul is answering the question of why some people who have little knowledge are saved while some who have much knowledge are not saved. He gave part of his answer in Romans 9. All of us are born lost, and God in His mercy and grace chooses to call some people to him. Paul continues his answer into chapter 10. Taking religion seriously is not the answer.
On what is the basis does God choose the elect? Paul’s answer is that God — as God — has a sovereign right to choose who receives mercy.