The New Testament is our divinely inspired commentary on the Old Testament. When studying a passage, it’s often helpful to see how other biblical authors understood it. Here is James’ use of the Old Testament in his letter.
|Jas 1:10 – and the rich in his humiliation, because like a flower of the grass he will pass away.||Jer 9:23|
|Jas 1:19 – Know this, my beloved brothers: let every person be quick to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger;||Pr 10:19;|
|Jas 2:1 – My brothers,show no partiality as you hold the faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory.||Le 19:15;|
|Jas 2:8 – If you really fulfill the royal law according to the Scripture, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself,” you are doing well.||Le 19:18|
|Jas 2:11 – For he who said, “Do not commit adultery,” also said, “Do not murder.” If you do not commit adultery but do murder, you have become a transgressor of the law.||Ex 20:13-15|
|Jas 2:21 – Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered up his son Isaac on the altar?||Ge 22:9||allusion|
|Jas 2:23 – and the Scripture was fulfilled that says, “Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness”—and he was called a friend of God.||Ge 15:6|
|Jas 2:25 – And in the same way was not also Rahab the prostitute justified by works when she received the messengers and sent them out by another way?||Jos 2:1;|
|Jas 4:6 – But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.”||Pr 3:34|
|Jas 5:3 – Your gold and silver have corroded, and their corrosion will be evidence against you and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up treasure in the last days.||Pr 16:27||allusion?|
|Jas 5:11 – Behold, we consider those blessed who remained steadfast. You have heard of the steadfastness of Job, and you have seen the purpose of the Lord, how the Lord is compassionate and merciful.||Job 1:21-22;|
|Jas 5:17-18 – Elijah was a man with a nature like ours, and he prayed fervently that it might not rain, and for three years and six months it did not rain on the earth. Then he prayed again, and heaven gave rain, and the earth bore its fruit.||1Ki 17:1;|
A quotation is a word-for-word citation of the original source, often preceded by “it is written.”
An allusion is a reference to the original source using the the same key words or thoughts without quoting word for word.
Because the New Testament writers often borrow the language of the Old Testament (allusion) rather than quote verses directly, different scholars have different counts for the number of times a New Testament author quotes the Old Testament.