Study questions, maps, charts, key words, history, background, outlines, and links to help you study the Old Testament book of Exodus.
Israel’s escape from slavery in Egypt is commonly known as the exodus (meaning ‘a going out’). The most likely date for the event is about 1280 BC, and the historical account of the event is given in the book of Exodus.
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- Historical period covered: There are two theories of when the Exodus happened: 1400s BC and 1200s BC. See When did the Exodus happen?
- Main events: Deliverance from slavery in Egypt (“the exodus”), receiving the law (divine instruction), building the tabernacle.
- Overarching theme: Who is the Lord? (Ex 5:2)
- Key issue: Idolatry. YHWH is truly God.
- Movement: From slavery to worship. The book begins with Israel’s need for deliverance from slavery in Egypt. It ends with the worshiping people of God ready to march into the promised land with the Lord’s presence as their guide.
- Exodus is a Greek title meaning “exit,” “departure” or “going out.”
- Egyptians were descendants of Ham.
- God controls nature.
- God controls history.
- History is purposeful.
- God is a redeemer from injustice and oppression.
- Exodus is a historical metaphor for redemption and salvation.
- The Jewish religious calendar is built around Exodus.
- History is a source and motive force behind ethical values.
- Adultery becomes the main metaphor for idolatry.
- Nation building: When Israel left a mixed multitude went with them (Exodus 12:38). The events of Exodus transform the people from a crowd to a nation of people, interconnected with a common purpose. They have shared history, traditions, values and close personal ties.
People of Israel
- Rebellious; They reject and question Moses’ leadership. They complain and want to return to Egypt.
- Obstinate: They repeat their rebellion despite God’s acts of care and provision.
- Impatient: Incident of the golden calf was the result of impatience.
- Paradigm for all humanity.
- Loyal to His promises; fulfills His promises to the patriarchs.
- Powerful: plagues and miraculous provision (water, manna, quail) demonstrate His power over the gods of Egypt, the forces of nature and human beings.
- Holy character: He is compassionate, gracious, slow to anger, abounding in lovingingkindness and truth, forgiving but just (Exodus 34:6-7).
- God can be related to as a person. He is not an impersonal force. Moses can reason with Him.
- God has a plan and He is able to implement it.
- Humble; He was humbled by his experiences before leading the people of out Egypt.
- Intercedes for the people.
- Loyal, loving and forgiving; he mirrors those characteristics of God.
Why study Exodus?
- It is foundational (part of the Torah). The rest of Scripture assumes the reader is familiar with the Torah.
- It describes a time when God acted overtly in human history, proving that God is in control of history.
- The Exodus is the Bible’s paradigm for salvation.
- Chapters 1:1-15:21 – in Egypt
- Chapters 15:22-18:26 – in the wilderness
- Chapters 19-40 – at Mount Sinai
|Exodus 1-4||The Call of Moses: Gift of leader for theocratic state.||Moses becomes the political founder of the nation. (Abraham was the physical founder.)|
Gift of deliverance from Egypt
|God frees His people from oppression in order to worship Him in freedom and truth.|
Gift of the covenant
|Now that Israel is free, they are told how to live. God does not show Himself in an image or form; but in words which express His moral will.|
Gift of worship
|Now that Israel is free and know how to act, they are told how to worship.|
Genre: Understanding Narrative
Background & Outlines
- When did the Exodus happen?
- Introduction to Ancient Egypt
- Chart: Bible History at a glance
- Blue Letter Bible: Old Testament Timeline
- Jensen’s Survey of the Old Testament
- Bible Atlas: Egypt
- Bible Atlas: Sinai
- Ray C Stedman: Overview of the Book
- John MacArthur: Author, Date, Background
- Introduction to the Pentateuch
- ESV Introduction to Exodus
- ESV The Global Message of Exodus
- NIV: Introduction to Exodus
- Ligonier: Introduction to Exodus
- Ligonier: Introduction to the Pentateuch
- Biblehub: Timeline of Exodus
- Exodus-Numbers Parallels
- Exodus Quotes in the NT
- Pentateuch at a glance
- David Malick (Bible.org): An Introduction to the Pentateuch
- David Malick: An Introduction to the Book of Exodus
- David Malick: An Argument of the Book of Exodus
- JVernon McGee: Exodus Notes and Outline
- William Orr: 39 Keys to the Old Testament: A Practical Guide to Bible Study
- Charles Swindoll – Overview of Exodus
- James van Dine: Analysis of Exodus
Maps – Route of the Exodus
- Route of the Exodus – StudyLight.org
- Route of Exodus from Egypt – Insightforliving
- Route of Exodus – Holman Bible Atlas
- Route of the Exodus
- Tabernacle Diagram
Maps from Bible-History.com
- World of the Old Testament
- Land of Israel in Old Testament Times
- Route of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
- The Egyptian Empire (1450 B.C.)
- Ancient Near East
- Egypt in Bible Times
Maps from Holman Bible Atlas
- Expulsion of the Hyksos
- Egypt and Palestine in the Late Bronze Age
- Sites in the Amarna Archive (Akhetaton; Tell el-Amarna)
- Campaigns of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II
- Canaan in the 14th Century: The Tell el-Amarna Tablets
- The Egyptian Empire and the Hittites
- Egyptian Empire and Balance of Power, ca. 1400 BCE
- The Route of the Exodus
- Events during the Sojourn at Kadesh-Barnea
- Journey of the Spies
- The Journey from Kadesh-Barnea to the Plains of Moab
Key Words in Exodus
Occurrences are based on New American Standard Text. “4x/3v” means the word appears 4 times in 3 verses. “3x” means the word appears 3 times in 3 verses.
- slave (14x/13v) – 11:5; 12:44; 13:3, 14; 20:2; 21:2, 5, 7, 20, 26f, 32; 23:12
- bondage (5x/4v) – 2:23; 6:5f, 9
- cry (10x/8v) – 2:23; 3:7, 9; 5:8; 11:6; 12:30; 22:23; 32:18; cried (6x/6v) – 2:23; 5:15; 8:12; 14:10; 15:25; 17:4
- deliver/delivered (11x/10v) – 2:23; 3:7, 9; 5:8; 11:6; 12:30; 22:23; 32:18
- passover (6x) – 12:11, 21, 27, 43, 48; 34:25
- Sinai (13x) – 16:1; 19:1f, 11, 18, 20, 23; 24:16; 31:18; 34:2, 4, 29, 32
- Horeb (3x) – 3:1; 17:6; 33:6
- mountain of God (3x) – 3:1; 4:27; 24:13
- die/died (27x/26v) – 1:6; 2:23; 7:18, 21; 8:13; 9:4, 6, 19; 10:28; 11:5; 14:11f; 16:3; 20:19; 21:12, 14, 18, 20, 35; 22:2, 10, 14; 28:35, 43; 30:20f
- death (14x) – 1:16; 4:24; 10:17; 19:12; 21:12, 15-17, 28-29; 22:19; 31:14-15; 35:2
- holy (57x/46v) – 3:5; 12:16; 15:13; 16:23; 19:6; 20:8, 11; 22:31; 26:33f; 28:2, 4, 29, 35f, 38, 43; 29:6, 29-31, 33f, 37; 30:10, 25, 29, 31f, 35-37; 31:10f, 14f; 35:2, 19, 21; 37:29; 39:1, 30, 41; 40:9f, 13
- Lord commanded (6x) – 7:6; 16:34; 36:5 Exodus 23:15; 32:8; 34:18; Lord had commanded (26x) – 7:10, 20; 12:28, 50; 19:7; 34:4; 35:29; 38:22; 39:1, 5, 7, 21, 26, 29, 31f, 42f; 40:16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29, 32
- covenant (13x) – 2:24; 6:4f; 19:5; 23:32; 24:7f; 31:16; 34:10, 12, 15, 27f
- cloud (21x/20v) – 13:21f; 14:19f, 24; 16:10; 19:9, 16; 20:21; 24:15f, 18; 33:9f; 34:5; 40:34-38
- test/tested (27x/26v) – 15:25; 16:4, 34; 17:2, 7; 20:20; 23:2; 25:16, 21f; 26:33f; 27:21; 30:6, 26, 36; 31:7, 18; 32:15; 34:29; 38:21; 39:35; 40:3, 5, 20f
- law (5x) – 12:49; 13:9; 18:16, 20; 24:12
- Tent of meeting (34x/33v) – 27:21; 28:43; 29:4, 10f, 30, 32, 42, 44; 30:16, 18, 20, 26, 36; 31:7; 33:7; 35:21; 38:8, 30; 39:32, 40; 40:2, 6f, 12, 22, 24, 26, 29f, 32, 34f
- Tabernacle (58x/55v) – 25:9; 26:1, 6f, 12f, 15, 17f, 20, 22f, 26f, 30, 35; 27:9, 19; 35:11, 15, 18; 36:8, 13f, 20, 22f, 25, 27f, 31f; 38:20f, 31; 39:32f, 40; 40:2, 5f, 9, 17ff, 21f, 24, 28f, 33ff, 38
- Egypt (180x/153v) – 1:1, 5, 8, 13, 15, 17ff; 2:11f, 14, 19, 23; 3:7ff, 16ff; 4:18ff; 5:4, 12; 6:5ff, 11, 13, 26ff; 7:3ff, 11, 18f, 21f, 24; 8:5ff, 16f, 21, 24, 26; 9:4, 6, 9, 11, 18, 22ff; 10:2, 6f, 12ff, 19, 21f; 11:1, 3ff, 9; 12:1, 12f, 17, 23, 27, 29f, 33, 35f, 39ff, 51; 13:3, 8f, 14ff; 14:4f, 7ff, 17f, 20, 23ff, 30f; 15:26; 16:1, 3, 6, 32; 17:3; 18:1, 8ff; 19:1, 4; 20:2; 22:21; 23:9, 15; 29:46; 32:1, 4, 7f, 11f, 23; 33:1; 34:18
Exodus in the Psalms
- Brief: Psa 44; Psa 66; Psa 68; Psa 74; Psa 77; Psa 80; Psa 81; Psa 95; Psa 99; Psa 103; Psa 125.
- Extended: Psalm 78; Psalm 105; Psalm 106; Psalm 114; Psalm 136
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
Exodus, Book of
- Bridgeway Bible Dictionary Exodus, book of
- Holman Bible Dictionary Exodus, Book of
- 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica Book of Exodus
- Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia Exodus book of
- The Jewish Encyclopedia Exodus, Book of
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary Exodus, Book of
- Fausset Bible Dictionary Exodus, the Book of
- Morrish Bible Dictionary Exodus, Book of
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Exodus, the Book of
- American Tract Society Exodus
- Bridgeway Bible Dictionary Exodus
- Chabad Knowledge Base Exodus
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary Exodus
- Holman Bible Dictionary Exodus
- Hitchcock Bible Names Exodus
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible Exodus
- Watson’s Theological Dictionary Exodus
- 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica The Exodus
- Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia Exodus
- McClintock and Strong’s Bible Encyclopedia Exodus
- The Nuttall Encyclopedia Exodus
- The Jewish Encyclopedia Exodus
- American Tract Society: Moses
- Bridgeway Bible Dictionary: Moses
- Baker Evangelical Dictionary: Moses
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Moses
- Fausset Bible Dictionary: Moses
- Holman Bible Dictionary: Moses
- Hitchcock Bible Names: Moses
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible: Moses
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the NT: Moses
- Dictionary of Early Christian Biography: Moses
- Whyte’s Bible Characters: Moses
- Wilson’s Bible Types: Moses
- Watson’s Theological Dictionary: Moses
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Moses
- Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia: Moses
- The Nuttall Encyclopedia: Moses
Law of Moses
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Law of Moses
- Holman Bible Dictionary: Law of Moses
- Smith Bible Dictionary: Law of Moses
- Old Testament History – The Exodus and The Wanderings in the Wilderness
- Exodus 1:1-7 Egypt And Its History During The Stay Of The Children Of Israel, As Illustrated By The Bible & Ancient Monuments
- Exodus 1 The Children Of Israel In Egypt – Their Residences, Occupations, Social Arrangements, Constitution, And Religion – “A New King Who Knew Not Joseph.”
- Exodus 2 The Birth, And The Training Of Moses, Both In Egypt And In Midian, As Preparatory To His Calling
- Exodus 2:23; 4:17 The Call Of Moses – The Vision Of The Burning Bush -The Commission To Pharaoh And To Israel -And The Three “Signs,” And Their Meaning
- Exodus 4:17-31 Moses Returns Into Egypt – The Dismissal Of Zipporah -Moses Meets Aaron – Their Reception By The Children Of Israel – Remarks On The Hardening Of Pharaoh’s Heart
- Exodus 5:1-12:30 Moses And Aaron Deliver Their Message To Pharaoh – Increased Oppression Of Israel – Discouragement Of Moses – Aaron Shows A Sign – General View And Analysis Of Each Of The Ten “Strokes,” Or Plagues
- Exodus 12-15:21 The Passover And Its Ordinances – The Children Of Israel Leave Egypt – Their First Resting-Place The Pillar Of Cloud And Of Fire – Pursuit Of Pharaoh Passage Through The Red Sea – Destruction Of Pharaoh And His Host – The Song “On The Other Side.”
- Exodus 15:22; 16 The Wilderness Of Shur – The Sinaitic Peninsula – Its Scenery And Vegetation – Its Capabilities Of Supporting A Population – The Wells Of Moses -Three Days March To Marah – Elim Road To The Wilderness Of Sin – Israel’s Murmuring – The Miraculous Provision Of The Quails – The Manna
- Exodus 17, 18 Rephidim – The Defeat Of Amalek And Its Meaning – The Visit Of Jethro And Its Symbolical Import
- Exodus 19-20:17 Israel At The Foot Of Mount Sinai – The Preparations For The Covenant – The “Ten Words?” And Their Meaning
- Exodus 20:18-24:12 Civil & Social Ordinances Of Israel As The People Of God – Their Religious Ordinances In Their National Aspect – The “Covenant Made By Sacrifice” And The Sacrificial Meal Of Acceptance
- Exodus 24:12; 25-33 The Pattern Seen On The Mountain – The Tabernacle, The Priesthood, And The Services In Their Arrangement And Typical Meaning – The Sin Of The Golden Calf – The Divine Judgment – The Plea Of Moses – God’s Gracious Forgiveness – The Vision Of The Glory Of The Lord Vouchsafed To Moses
- Exodus 34-50 Moses A Second Time On The Mount – On His Return His Face Shineth – The Rearing Of The Tabernacle – Its Consecration By The Seen Presence Of Jehovah
Flavius Josephus: The Antiquities of the Jews
BOOK II. Containing The Interval Of Two Hundred And Twenty Years. From The Death Of Isaac To The Exodus Out Of Egypt.
- CHAPTER 9. Concerning The Afflictions That Befell The Hebrews In Egypt, During Four Hundred Years.
- CHAPTER 10. How Moses Made War With The Ethiopians.
- CHAPTER 11. How Moses Fled Out Of Egypt Into Midian.
- CHAPTER 12. Concerning The Burning Bush And The Rod Of Moses.
- CHAPTER 13. How Moses And Aaron Returned Into Egypt To Pharaoh.
- CHAPTER 14. Concerning The Ten Plagues Which Came Upon The Egyptians.
- CHAPTER 15. How The Hebrews Under The Conduct Of Moses Left Egypt.
- CHAPTER 16. How The Sea Was Divided Asunder For The Hebrews, When They Were Pursued By The Egyptians, And So Gave Them An Opportunity Of Escaping From Them.
BOOK III. Containing The Interval Of Two Years. From The Exodus Out Of Egypt, To The Rejection Of That Generation.
- CHAPTER 1. How Moses When He Had Brought The People Out Of Egypt Led
- CHAPTER 2. How The Amalekites And The Neighbouring Nations, Made War With The Hebrews And Were Beaten And Lost A Great Part Of Their Army.
- CHAPTER 3. That Moses Kindly Received-His Father-In-Law, Jethro, When He Came To Him To Mount Sinai.
- CHAPTER 4. How Raguel Suggested To Moses To Set His People In Order, Under Their Rulers Of Thousands, And Rulers Of Hundreds, Who Lived Without Order Before; And How Moses Complied In All Things With His Father-In-Law’s Admonition.
- CHAPTER 5. How Moses Ascended Up To Mount Sinai, And Received Laws From God, And Delivered Them To The Hebrews.
- CHAPTER 6. Concerning The Tabernacle Which Moses Built In The Wilderness For The Honor Of God And Which Seemed To Be A Temple.
- CHAPTER 7. Concerning The Garments Of The Priests, And Of The High Priest.
- CHAPTER 8. Of The Priesthood Of Aaron.
- CHAPTER 9. The Manner Of Our Offering Sacrifices.
- CHAPTER 10. Concerning The Festivals; And How Each Day Of Such Festival Is To Be Observed.
- CHAPTER 11. Of The Purifications.
- CHAPTER 12. Several Laws.
- CHAPTER 13. Moses Removed From Mount Sinai, And Conducted The People To The Borders Of The Canaanites.
- CHAPTER 14. How Moses Sent Some Persons To Search Out The Land Of The Canaanites
- CHAPTER 15. How Moses Was Displeased At This, And Foretold That God Was Angry And That They Should Continue In The Wilderness For Forty Years And Not, During That Time, Either Return Into Egypt Or Take Possession Of Canaan.
- Ligionier Top 5 Commentaries: Exodus
- Tim Challies Best Commentaries: Exodus
- Best Commentaries on Exodus – Logos
- Commentary Reviews: Exodus
- Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible: Exodus
- Albert Barnes Notes: Exodus
- Matthew Henry: Exodus
- Reformation Study Bible Notes: Exodus
- Geneva Study Bible: Exodus
- Precept Austin Commentaries & Sermons: Exodus
- Divine Hardening in the Old Testament – Chisholm
- Deliverance From Death By The True Passover Lamb: Significant Aspect Of The Fulfillment Of Passover In Gospel Of John – Paul Hoskins
- Israel in Slavery and Slavery in Israel- D. Jeffrey Mooney
- The Duration of the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt – Paul J Ray
- Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming Old Testament Narratives – Steven Mathewson
- The Feast Of Cover-Over – Meredith G. Kline
- Allen, Ronald B. “The Bloody Bridegroom in Exodus 4:24-26,” Bibliotheca Sacra 153 (1996) 259-69
- Bailey, Jon N. “Vowing Away the Fifth Commandment: Matthew 15:3-6//Mark 7:9-13,” Restoration Quarterly 42 (2000) 193-209
- Barrick, William D. “The Openness of God: Does Prayer Change God?” The Master’s Seminary Journal 12/2 (Fall 2001) 149-166
- Beale, G. K. “An Exegetical and Theological Consideration of the Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart in Exodus 4-14 and Romans 9,” Trinity Journal 5 NS (1984) 129-54. (Adv)
- Beitzel, Barry J. “Exodus 3:14 and the Divine Name: A Case of Biblical Paronomasia,” Trinity Journal 1.1 (1980) 5-20.
- Burkitt, F. C. “The Hebrew Papyrus of the Ten Commandments,” The Jewish Quarterly Review 15 (1903) 392-408.
- Burton, Keith A. “The Decalogue as Essential Torah in Second Temple Judaism,” Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 9/1-2 (1998):310-317.
- Cerling, C. E. “Abortion and Contraception in Scripture,” Christian Scholars Review (Fall, 1971) 42-58. —
- Chisholm, Robert B. “Does God ‘Change His Mind?’” Bibliotheca Sacra 152 (October-December 1995): 387-99 —
- Coats, G. W. “The Failure of the Hero: Moses as a Model for Ministry,” Asbury Theological Journal 41.2 (1986) 15-22.
- Cole, H. R. “The Sabbath and the Alien,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 38.2 (Autumn 2000) 223-229.
- Congdon, Robert N. “Exodus 21:22-25 and the Abortion Debate,” Bibliotheca Sacra 146 (1989) 132-47.
- Craigen, Trevor. “Urim and Thummim” Post Graduate Seminar Paper, Grace Theological Seminary, Winona Lake, IN: 1978.
- Davis, John J. “The Patriarchs’ Knowledge of Jehovah,” Grace Theological Journal 4.1 (1963) 29-43
- Davis, D. R. “Rebellion, Presence, and Covenant: A Study in Exodus 32-34,” Westminster Theological Journal 44 (1982) 71-87.
- Dyer, C. H. “The Date of the Exodus reexamined,” Bibliotheca Sacra 140 (1983) 225-43.
- Finn, A. H. “The Tabernacle Chapters,” The Journal of Theological Studies — 16 (July 1915) 449-82.
- Foote, Theodore C. “The Ephod,” Journal of Biblical Literature 21 (1902) 1-47.
- Glisson, Shawn D. “Exodus 6:3 in Pentateuchal Criticism,” Restoration Quarterly 28.3 (1985/86) 135-43.
- Grisanti, Micahel A. “The Abortion Dilemma,” The Master’s Seminary Journal 11/2 (Fall 2000) 169-190.
- Hendrix, Ralph E. “A Literary Structural Overview of Ex 25-40,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 30.2 (1992) 123-38.
- ________. “A Literary Structural Analysis of the golden-Calf Episode in Exodus 33:1-33:6,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 28.3 (1990) 211-17.
- ________. “Mi kan and ‘Ohel Mo’ed: Etymology, Lexical Definitions,and Extra-Biblical Usage,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 29.3 (1991) 213-23.
- ________. “The Use of Mi Kan and ‘Ohel M’ ed in Exodus 25-40,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 30.1 (1992) 3-13.
- Hoehner, Harold W. “The Duration of the Egyptian Bondage,” Bibliotheca Sacra 125 (1969) 306-16.
- House, H. Wayne. “Miscarriage or Premature Birth: Additional Thoughts on Exodus 21:22-25,” Westminster Theological Journal 41.1 (1978) — 108-23.
- Kennedy, A. R. S. “Shewbread.” A Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. J. Hastings. Vol. 4. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1902. 495-97.
- _________. “Tabernacle.” A Dictionary of the Bible. Ed. J. Hastings. — Vol. 4. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1902. 653-68.
- Klein, David J. “Proving and Provision at Marah,” Kerux 15.1 (2000) 24-29.
- Kline, Meredith G. “The Ha-Bi-Ru—Kin or Foe of Israel? Part 1” Westminster Theological J 19 (1956) 1-24.
- _________. “The Ha-Bi-Ru—Kin or Foe of Israel? Part 2” Westminster Theological Journal 19 (1956) 170-84.
- _________. “The Ha-Bi-Ru—Kin or Foe of Israel? Part 3” Westminster Theological Journal 20 (1958) 46-70.
- _________. “The Two Tables of the Covenant,” Westminster Theological Journal 22 (1960) 133-46.
- Laney, J. Carl. “God’s Self-Revelation in Exodus 34:6-8,” Bibliotheca Sacra 158 (Jan.-Mar. 2001) 36-51.
- Leder, Arie, C. The Coherence of Exodus: Narrative Unity and Meaning, Calvin Theological J 36 (2001) 251-69.
- _________. “Reading Exodus to Learn and Learning to Read Exodus,” Calvin Theological J 34 (1999) 11-35.
- Lee, Jeong W. “Introduction to the Ten Commandments,” Kerux 12.1 (1998) 33-40.
- Livingston, G. Herbert. “A Case Study of the Call of Moses,” Asbury Theological Journal 42.2 (1987) 89-113.
- Mattingly, Gerald L. “The Exodus-Conquest and the Archaeology of Transjordan: New Light on and Old Problem,” Grace Theological Journal 4.2 (1983) 245-62.
- McDaniel, Thomas F. “The Septuagint has the Correct Translation of Exodus 21:22-23”
- Meek, Theophile J. “The Sabbath in the Old Testament,” Journal of Biblical Literature 33 (1914) 201-12.
- Mercer, Samuel A. B. “Merneptah’s Israel and the Exodus,” Anglican Theological Review 5 (1922/23) 96-107
- Patterson, Richard D. “The Song of Redemption,” Westminster Theological Journal 57.2 (1995) 453-61.
- ________. “Victory at Sea: Prose and Poetry in Exodus 14-15,” Bibliotheca Sacra 161 (Jan. 2004) 42-54.
- Ray, Paul J. “The Duration of the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 24.3 (1986) 231-48.
- Rea, John. “The Time of the Oppression and the Exodus,” Grace Theological Journal 2.1 (Winter, 1961) 5-14.
- ________. “New Light on the Wilderness Journey and the Conquest,” Grace Theological Journal 2.2 (Spring 1961) 5-13.
- Riggs, Jack R. “The Length of Israel’s Sojourn in Egypt,” Grace Theological Journal 12.1 (Winter, 1971) 18-35.
- Shea, William H. “The Inscribed Tablets from Tell Deir cAlla,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 27.1 (Spring 1989) 21-37.
- Slater, Thomas B. “The Possible Influence of LXX Exodus 20:11 on Acts 14:15,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 30.2 (1992)151-52.
- Sprinkle, Joe M. “The Interpretation of Exodus 21:22-25 (Lex Talionis) and Abortion,” Westminster Theological Journal 55.2 (1993) 233-53.
- Waltke, B. K. “Palestinian Artifactual Evidence Supporting the Early Date of the Exodus,” Bibliotheca Sacra 129 (1972) 33-47.
- Wessner, Mark D. “ Toward a Literary Understanding of Moses and the LORD “Face To Face” (MyniPA-lx, MyniPA) in Exodus 33:7-11,” Restoration Quarterly 44 (2002) 109-16.
- Wilson, R. D. “Critical Note on Exodus VI.3,” Princeton Theological Review 22 (1924) 108-19.
- Worley, David R. “God’s Gracious Love Expressed: Exodus 20:1-17,” Restoration Quarterly 14 (1971) 184-204.
- Young, E. J. “The Call of Moses, Part 1” Westminster Theological Journal (1966-67) 117-35.
- ________. “The Call of Moses, Part II,” Westminster Theological Journal 30 (1967-68) 1-23.
- Zuck, Roy B. “The Practice of Witchcraft in the Scriptures,” Bibliotheca Sacra 128 (1971): 352-60
- Theologyof Unclean Food – Gordon J. Wenham, Evangelical Quarterly 53.1 (January/March 1981): 6-15.
- Book of Exodus – Bible Survey
- What should we learn from the life of Aaron?
- What should we learn from the life of Moses?
- Who was Moses’ mother?
- Why did God speak to Moses out of the burning bush?
- Who was Zipporah in the Bible?
- Who was Jethro in the Bible?
- Who was Moses’ wife? Did Moses have more than one wife?
- What does the Bible mean when it refers to holy ground?
- Why was God going to kill Moses in Exodus 4:24-26?
- Why did God harden Pharaoh’s heart?
- Who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?
- Are the pyramids mentioned in the Bible? Did the enslaved Israelites build the pyramids?
- What was the meaning and purpose of the ten plagues of Egypt?
- Is there extra-biblical evidence of the ten plagues in Egypt?
- Who were Jannes and Jambres?
- What is the importance of the parting of the Red Sea?
- Did the Israelites in the book of Exodus cross the Red Sea or the Reed Sea?
- What did the Law mean when it referred to a lasting ordinance?
- What did the pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night signify? (Exodus 13:21-22)
- What is the location of the real Mount Sinai?
- What are the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “You shall have no other gods before me” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “You shall not make for yourself an idol” in the Ten Commandments?
- What is the true meaning of the second commandment?
- Why is “You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “Honor your father and your mother” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “You shall not murder” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “You shall not commit adultery” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “You shall not steal” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor” in the Ten Commandments?
- Why is “You shall not covet” in the Ten Commandments?
- What day is the Sabbath, Saturday or Sunday?
- Does God require Sabbath keeping of Christians?
- What did it mean to be devoted to destruction?
- What is the difference between the ceremonial law, the moral law, and the judicial law in the Old Testament?
- What was the significance of the sprinkling of blood?
- What was the bread of the Presence (Exodus 25:30)?
- What was manna?
- What does the Bible mean by “an eye for an eye”?
- What was the sanctuary shekel?
- What was the significance of the anointed priest?
- What should we learn from the golden calf incident in Exodus 32?
- What sort of pagan revelry did the Israelites indulge in (Exodus 32:6)?
- Why wasn’t Aaron punished for making the golden calf?
- If Moses met face to face with God, why, later, was he not allowed to see God’s face?
- What does the Bible say about what foods we should eat (kosher)? Are there foods a Christian should avoid?
- Why did the Old Testament Law command against the eating of pork?
- What does it mean that Christians are not under the law?
- Do Christians have to obey the Old Testament law?
- What should Christians learn from the Mosaic Law?
- Law vs. grace—why is there so much conflict among Christians on the issue?