Study questions, maps, charts, key words, history, background, outlines, and links to help you study the Old Testament book of Isaiah.
Bible Study: Isaiah: Servant Songs
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The prophet Isaiah ministered in and around Jerusalem as a prophet to Judah during the reigns of 4 kings of Judah: Uzziah (called “Azariah” in 2 Kings), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1), from ca. 740–686 B.C. Isaiah was a contemporary of Hosea and Micah.
Biblical background: 2 Kings 15-21 and 2 Chronicles 26-33
Indictment of Jerusalem is an introduction to the themes of the whole book.
- 1:2-3 – covenant breach
- 1:4-9 – Israel’s refusal to be God’s people
- 1:10-20 – the problem of corrupt worship
- 1:21-23 – reiteration of the effects of Jerusalem’s harlotry
- 1:24-26 – threat of punishment as discipline
- 1:27-31 – salvation for the remnant
- 2:2-4 – future role of Mount Zion when Israel lives like the people of God.
- Return from exile as a new exodus (Isaiah 43:2-7; Isaiah 43:16-21; Isaiah 54:10-12)
Cyrus, King of Persia
- Predictions of return under Cyrus: Isaiah 41:2; Isaiah 31:25; Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 46:11.
- Cyrus as a “messianic” figure (called his “anointed” in 45:1; a man of God’s choice, appointed for a redemptive purpose toward God’s people who brings judgment on God’s foes and is given dominion over the nations as an agent of YHWH.
- Jacob Abbott: Cyrus the Great (1904)
Genre: Understanding Prophecy
Background & Outlines
- Introduction to the Prophets
- Introduction to the Exile and Return
- Chart: Bible History at a glance
- Blue Letter Bible: Old Testament Timeline
- Biblehub: Isaiah Overview
- Biblehub: Isaiah Chronology
- Biblehub: The Divided Kingdom
- Chart: Kings of Israel & Judah
- Bible Atlas: Assyria
- Bible Atlas: Babylon
- Bible Atlas: Jerusalem
- Ray C Stedman: Overview of the Book
- John MacArthur: Author, Date, Background
- Jensen’s Survey of the Old Testament
- Isaiah quotes in the New Testament
- Interesting Facts About Isaiah from BibleCharts.org
- Isaiah Chart by Paul Shockley
- Isaiah Overview Chart by Charles Swindoll
- Visual Overview by Mark Barry
- James van Dine: Analysis of Isaiah
- David Malick: An Introduction to Isaiah
- JVernon McGee: Isaiah Introduction
- Charles Swindoll: Book of Isaiah Overview
Maps from Bible-History.com
Maps from Holman Bible Atlas
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah
- The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (1)
- The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (2)
- The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (3)
- The Campaign of Shishak
- Conflicts between Israel and Aram-Damascus
- The Omride Dynasty
- The Golden Ages of the 9th & 8th centuries BCE
- Phoenician Trade and Civilization
- Trade Routes throughout the Middle East
- Elijah and Elisha
- The Revolt of Jehu
- The Rise of Assyria
- Israel & Judah in the days of Jeroboam II and Uzziah
- The Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser III
- Fall of Samaria and Deportation of Israelites
- The Fall of the Kingdom of Israel
- Assyrian Districts after the Fall of Samaria
- Prophets of the 8th Century BCE
Judah Alone amid International Powers
- Hezekiah’s Preparation for Revolt
- Judah under King Hezekiah
- Hezekiah’s Jerusalem
- Sennacherib’s Campaign against Judah
- Assyria in the 7th century BCE
- The Rise of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
- The Reign of Josiah
- The Districts of Judah under King Josiah
- The Golden Age of King Josiah
- Nebuchadnezzar’s Campaigns against Judah
The Persian Period
Key Words in Isaiah (NAS77)
Occurrences are based on New American Standard Text. “4x/3v” means the word appears 4 times in 3 verses. “3x” means the word appears 3 times in 3 verses.
- Lord (417x); God (127v) Lord of Hosts (63x); NOTE: “I am the Lord”; “no one besides Me”; “no other”
- earth (93x); heavens (19x); heaven (11x)
- day (87x) – Note: “day of Lord”; “last day”; “in that day”
- Israel (87x); Judah (26x); remnant (13x)
- holy (52v) – Note: “Holy One of Israel”
- nations (52x); nation (19x); Assyria (37v); Babylon (13x)/Chaldeans (7x)
- glory (35v)
- salvation (25x); compassion (14x); joy (19x); covenant (12x)
- servant (22x)
- woe (20x); sword (18x)
- redeemer (13x); redeemed (12x); redemption (1x)
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
- Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary: Isaiah, Theology of
- Holman Bible Dictionary: Isaiah
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible: Isaiah; Isaiah, Book of
- McClintock and Strong: Isaiah
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Isaiah
- Kitto’s Popular Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature: Isaiah
- Isaiah means “The salvation of the Lord” – Hitchcock’s Bible Names
- American Tract Society Isaiah
- Bridgeway Bible Dictionary Isaiah
- Chabad Knowledge Base Isaiah
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary Isaiah
- Fausset Bible Dictionary Isaiah
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the NT Isaiah
- Whyte’s Bible Characters Isaiah
- Watson’s Theological Dictionary Isaiah
- The Nuttall Encyclopedia Isaiah
- Top 5 Commentaries on the Book of Isaiah – Ligonier.org
- Best Commentaries on Isaiah – Tim Challies
- Commentary Reviews: Isaiah
- Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible: Isaiah
- Albert Barnes Notes on the Whole Bible: Isaiah
- Matthew Henry’s Complete Complete Commentary on the Bible: Isaiah
- Geneva Study Bible: Isaiah
- Reformation Study Bible Notes: Isaiah
- Precept Austin Commentaries & Sermons: Isaiah
- Charles Swindoll – Overview of Isaiah
- Paul Apple: Jehovah is Salvation
- Uri Yosef: Who is the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53? Part 1 – The Jewish Interpretation Valid or Not?
- Uri Yosef: Who is the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53? Part 2 – The Christian Interpretation Valid or Not?
- Joseph Alexander:Isaiah Translated and Explained – Volume 1 (Isaiah 1-35)
- Joseph Alexander: Isaiah Translated and Explained – Volume 2 (Isaiah 36-66)
- Isaiah 40-48 A Sermonic Challenge to Open Theism – Trevor Craigen
- H. L. Ellison, Men Spake from God, 2nd edn.. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1958. (from chapter 6 of Men Spake from God- H.L. Ellison)
- Preaching Isaiah: Dispensational Issues – Neal Cushman
- Lucifer in Isaiah 14:12-17 Dennis Bratcher
- The Immanuel Prophecy, by William Brooks
- Isaiah 1:18 – Declaration, Exclamation or Interrogation? – Robert D Culver
- The Purpose of the Book of Isaiah – William J Dumbrell
- An Analysis of Isaiah 40:1-11 – Terry W Eddinger
- Isaiah 6:9-13 in the Context of Isaiah’s Theology – Craig A Evans
- The Preposition B in Isaiah 27:13 – F C Fensham
- Israel’s Mission to the Nations in Isaiah 40-55: An Update – M A Grisanti
- Isaiah’s Immanuel – Edward E Hindson
- A Note on Isaiah 45:9 – Alger F Johns
- Who’s Who and What’s What in Isaiah 53 – Gordon D Kirchhevel
- Isaiah 40-55 As Anti-Babylonian Polemic – Eugene H Merrill
- Isaiah 40:20 Towards a Solution – A R Millard
- Sennacherib’s Attack on Hezekiah – A R Millard
- Context and Content in the Interpretation of Isaiah 7:14 – J A Moyter
- Trust in the Lord – Hezekiah, Kings and Isaiah – John W Olley
- A Note on Paul’s Use of Isaiah – Douglas A Oss
- The Servant of the Lord: Language and Interpretation: D F Payne
- The Nature of Faith in Isaiah – G C I Wong
- Flying Serpents? (Also article by D J Wiseman)
- The NT Use of the Old Testament (36 mentions of Isaiah) – R L Thomas.
- Paul van Gorder: Isaiah – The Old Testament Presents… Reflections of Christ
- Book of Isaiah – Bible Survey
- What are the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets?
- Does the Harbinger Really Predict America’s Future?
- What Is Source Criticism?
- What is the Deutero-Isaiah theory? Was the Book of Isaiah written by multiple Isaiahs?
- What should we learn from the life of Isaiah?
- What does the Bible mean when it refers to a “Daughter of Zion”?
- Who was King Uzziah in the Bible?
- What does it mean that God is holy, holy, holy?
- What are seraphim? Are seraphs angels?
- Is ‘virgin’ or ‘young woman’ the correct translation of Isaiah 7:14?
- Where does the Old Testament predict the coming of Christ?
- Why wasn’t Jesus named Immanuel?
- What Is the Day of the Lord?
- What does it mean that Jesus is our Wonderful Counselor (Isaiah 9:6)?
- What does it mean that Jesus is the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6)?
- Why are both Jesus and Satan referred to as the morning star?
- How, why, and when did Satan fall from heaven?
- Is Lucifer Satan? Does the Fall of Lucifer Describe Satan?
- Was Satan in charge of music in Heaven?
- Did God Create Satan?
- What Is the Significance of the City of Petra in the Bible?
- What is the Key of David?
- What Is an Anthropomorphism?
- What Does It Mean that Jesus Christ Is the Cornerstone?
- What Is a Threshing Floor?
- What Does It Mean that God Is a Consuming Fire?
- What Does It Mean that Jesus Is the Alpha and the Omega?
- Who Was Cyrus in the Bible?
- Why does Isaiah 45:7 say that God created evil?
- What does it mean and when will it happen that every knee shall bow?
- Does God Know the Future?
- If God knew that Satan would rebel, why did He create him?
- What is process theology?
- What are the four Servant Songs in Isaiah?
- What Does the Bible Say about Peace?
- Why did Jesus have to experience so much suffering?
- What did Jesus look like?
- ‘The Suffering Servant’ a prophecy about Jesus?
- What does it mean that “by His stripes we are healed”?
- Where do the Hebrew Scriptures prophesy the death and resurrection of the Messiah?
- Will All Israel Be Saved in the End Times?
- What is the meaning of “Hephzibah” in the Bible?
- Why are all of our righteous acts considered filthy rags?
- Will we remember our earthly lives when we are in Heaven?