Study questions, maps, charts, key words, history, background, outlines, and links to help you study the Old Testament book of Isaiah.
Bible Study: Isaiah: Servant Songs
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The prophet Isaiah ministered in and around Jerusalem as a prophet to Judah during the reigns of 4 kings of Judah: Uzziah (called “Azariah” in 2 Kings), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1), from ca. 740–686 B.C. Isaiah was a contemporary of Hosea and Micah.
Biblical background: 2 Kings 15-21 and 2 Chronicles 26-33
Indictment of Jerusalem is an introduction to the themes of the whole book.
- 1:2-3 – covenant breach
- 1:4-9 – Israel’s refusal to be God’s people
- 1:10-20 – the problem of corrupt worship
- 1:21-23 – reiteration of the effects of Jerusalem’s harlotry
- 1:24-26 – threat of punishment as discipline
- 1:27-31 – salvation for the remnant
- 2:2-4 – future role of Mount Zion when Israel lives like the people of God.
- Return from exile as a new exodus (Isaiah 43:2-7; Isaiah 43:16-21; Isaiah 54:10-12)
Cyrus, King of Persia
- Predictions of return under Cyrus: Isaiah 41:2; Isaiah 31:25; Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 46:11.
- Cyrus as a “messianic” figure (called his “anointed” in 45:1; a man of God’s choice, appointed for a redemptive purpose toward God’s people who brings judgment on God’s foes and is given dominion over the nations as an agent of YHWH.
- Jacob Abbott: Cyrus the Great (1904)
Genre: Understanding Prophecy
Background & Outlines
Ray C Stedman: Overview of the Book
John MacArthur: Author, Date, Background
Interesting Facts About Isaiah from BibleCharts.org
Isaiah Overview Chart by Charles Swindoll
James van Dine: Analysis of Isaiah
David Malick: An Introduction to Isaiah
JVernon McGee: Isaiah Introduction
Charles Swindoll: Book of Isaiah Overview
Introduction to the Exile and Return
Chart: Bible History at a glance
Blue Letter Bible: Old Testament Timeline
Kings of Assyria in Biblical Times
Biblehub: The Divided Kingdom
Chart: Kings of Israel & Judah
Bible Atlas: Assyria
Bible Atlas: Babylon
Bible Atlas: Jerusalem
Jensen’s Survey of the Old Testament
Quotes: Isaiah quotes in the New Testament
Maps from Holman Bible Atlas
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (1)
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (2)
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (3)
Conflicts between Israel and Aram-Damascus
The Golden Ages of the 9th & 8th centuries BCE
Phoenician Trade and Civilization
Trade Routes throughout the Middle East
Israel & Judah in the days of Jeroboam II and Uzziah
The Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser III
Fall of Samaria and Deportation of Israelites
The Fall of the Kingdom of Israel
Assyrian Districts after the Fall of Samaria
Prophets of the 8th Century BCE
Judah Alone amid International Powers
Hezekiah’s Preparation for Revolt
Sennacherib’s Campaign against Judah
Assyria in the 7th century BCE
The Rise of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
The Districts of Judah under King Josiah
Nebuchadnezzar’s Campaigns against Judah
The Persian Period
World Powers of the 6th century BCE
The Conquests of Cyrus the Great
The Return of the Jewish Exiles to Judah
ESV Study Bible Maps
Key Words in Isaiah (NAS77)
Occurrences are based on New American Standard Text. “4x/3v” means the word appears 4 times in 3 verses. “3x” means the word appears 3 times in 3 verses.
Lord (417x); God (127v) Lord of Hosts (63x); NOTE: “I am the Lord”; “no one besides Me”; “no other”
earth (93x); heavens (19x); heaven (11x)
day (87x) – Note: “day of Lord”; “last day”; “in that day”
Israel (87x); Judah (26x); remnant (13x)
holy (52v) – Note: “Holy One of Israel”
nations (52x); nation (19x); Assyria (37v); Babylon (13x)/Chaldeans (7x)
salvation (25x); compassion (14x); joy (19x); covenant (12x)
woe (20x); sword (18x)
redeemer (13x); redeemed (12x); redemption (1x)
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary: Isaiah, Theology of
Holman Bible Dictionary: Isaiah
Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible: Isaiah; Isaiah, Book of
McClintock and Strong: Isaiah
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Isaiah
Kitto’s Popular Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature: Isaiah
Isaiah means “The salvation of the Lord” – Hitchcock’s Bible Names
American Tract Society Isaiah
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary Isaiah
Chabad Knowledge Base Isaiah
Easton’s Bible Dictionary Isaiah
Fausset Bible Dictionary Isaiah
Hastings’ Dictionary of the NT Isaiah
Whyte’s Bible Characters Isaiah
Watson’s Theological Dictionary Isaiah
The Nuttall Encyclopedia Isaiah
Top 5 Commentaries on the Book of Isaiah – Ligonier.org
Best Commentaries on Isaiah – Tim Challies
Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible: Isaiah
Albert Barnes Notes on the Whole Bible: Isaiah
Matthew Henry’s Complete Complete Commentary on the Bible: Isaiah
Reformation Study Bible Notes: Isaiah
Precept Austin Commentaries & Sermons: Isaiah
Charles Swindoll – Overview of Isaiah
Paul Apple: Jehovah is Salvation
Uri Yosef: Who is the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53? Part 1 – The Jewish Interpretation Valid or Not?
Uri Yosef: Who is the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53? Part 2 – The Christian Interpretation Valid or Not?
Joseph Alexander:Isaiah Translated and Explained – Volume 1 (Isaiah 1-35)
Joseph Alexander: Isaiah Translated and Explained – Volume 2 (Isaiah 36-66)
Isaiah 40-48 A Sermonic Challenge to Open Theism – Trevor Craigen
H. L. Ellison, Men Spake from God, 2nd edn.. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1958. (from chapter 6 of Men Spake from God- H.L. Ellison)
Preaching Isaiah: Dispensational Issues – Neal Cushman
Lucifer in Isaiah 14:12-17 Dennis Bratcher
The Immanuel Prophecy, by William Brooks
Isaiah 1:18 – Declaration, Exclamation or Interrogation? – Robert D Culver
The Purpose of the Book of Isaiah – William J Dumbrell
An Analysis of Isaiah 40:1-11 – Terry W Eddinger
Isaiah 6:9-13 in the Context of Isaiah’s Theology – Craig A Evans
The Preposition B in Isaiah 27:13 – F C Fensham
Israel’s Mission to the Nations in Isaiah 40-55: An Update – M A Grisanti
Isaiah’s Immanuel – Edward E Hindson
A Note on Isaiah 45:9 – Alger F Johns
Who’s Who and What’s What in Isaiah 53 – Gordon D Kirchhevel
Isaiah 40-55 As Anti-Babylonian Polemic – Eugene H Merrill
Isaiah 40:20 Towards a Solution – A R Millard
Sennacherib’s Attack on Hezekiah – A R Millard
Context and Content in the Interpretation of Isaiah 7:14 – J A Moyter
Trust in the Lord – Hezekiah, Kings and Isaiah – John W Olley
A Note on Paul’s Use of Isaiah – Douglas A Oss
The Servant of the Lord: Language and Interpretation: D F Payne
The Nature of Faith in Isaiah – G C I Wong
Flying Serpents? (Also article by D J Wiseman)
The NT Use of the Old Testament (36 mentions of Isaiah) – R L Thomas.
Paul van Gorder: Isaiah – The Old Testament Presents… Reflections of Christ
What are the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets?
Does the Harbinger Really Predict America’s Future?
What is the Deutero-Isaiah theory? Was the Book of Isaiah written by multiple Isaiahs?
What should we learn from the life of Isaiah?
What does the Bible mean when it refers to a “Daughter of Zion”?
Who was King Uzziah in the Bible?
What does it mean that God is holy, holy, holy?
What are seraphim? Are seraphs angels?
Is ‘virgin’ or ‘young woman’ the correct translation of Isaiah 7:14?
Where does the Old Testament predict the coming of Christ?
Why wasn’t Jesus named Immanuel?
What does it mean that Jesus is our Wonderful Counselor (Isaiah 9:6)?
What does it mean that Jesus is the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6)?
Why are both Jesus and Satan referred to as the morning star?
How, why, and when did Satan fall from heaven?
Is Lucifer Satan? Does the Fall of Lucifer Describe Satan?
Was Satan in charge of music in Heaven?
What Is the Significance of the City of Petra in the Bible?
What Does It Mean that Jesus Christ Is the Cornerstone?
What Does It Mean that God Is a Consuming Fire?
What Does It Mean that Jesus Is the Alpha and the Omega?
Why does Isaiah 45:7 say that God created evil?
What does it mean and when will it happen that every knee shall bow?
If God knew that Satan would rebel, why did He create him?
What are the four Servant Songs in Isaiah?
What Does the Bible Say about Peace?
Why did Jesus have to experience so much suffering?
‘The Suffering Servant’ a prophecy about Jesus?
What does it mean that “by His stripes we are healed”?
Where do the Hebrew Scriptures prophesy the death and resurrection of the Messiah?
Will All Israel Be Saved in the End Times?
What is the meaning of “Hephzibah” in the Bible?
Why are all of our righteous acts considered filthy rags?
Will we remember our earthly lives when we are in Heaven?
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Resources: by Book of the Bible
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