Study questions, maps, charts, key words, history, background, outlines, and links to help you study the Old Testament book of Joel.
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- Author: Joel
- Date: Unknown.
- Possible Dates: a) Early Preexilic: Some think Joel was an early prophet to the southern kingdom of Judah during the reign of King Joash (835-796 BC); b) Late Preexilic (609-586 BC); or c) Postexilic (515-350 BC).
- The Hebrew Canon places Joel among the minor prophets after Ezekiel & Hosea and before Amos.
- The Greek canon places Joel after Daniel and Hosea and before Amos.
- I suspect the dating is ambiguous because Joel is relevant to any time of lament or trouble.
- Joel tells the nations that even though some disasters have struck, it is not too late to repent.
- Chapter 1:1-5 – A plague destroys the land
- Chapter 1:6-2:27 – Vision of the invading army
- Chapter 2:28-3:21 – Future judgment and deliverance
- To warn Judah of the coming Day of the Lord when judgment will get worse for Judah and the nations of the world.
- To urge Judah to repent of their sins.
- To proclaim a future time of complete restoration.
Genre: Understanding Prophecy
- Introduction to the Prophets
- Chart: Bible History at a glance
- Blue Letter Bible: Old Testament Timeline
- Biblehub: The Divided Kingdom
- Chart: Kings of Israel & Judah
- Bible Atlas: Assyria
- Bible Atlas: Babylon
- Bible Atlas: Chaldea
- Bible Atlas: Jerusalem
- Minor Prophets Quotes in the New Testament
- Jensen’s Survey of the Old Testament
- Hebrew Calendar
- Ray C Stedman: Overview of the Book
- John MacArthur: Introduction to Joel
- NIV: Introduction to Joel
- NIV: The Minor Prophets
- ESV: Introduction to Joel
- ESV: Global Message of Joel
- James van Dine: Analysis of Joel
- David Malick: An Introduction to the Book of Joel
- David Malick: An Argument of the Book of Joel
- JVernon McGee: Hosea and Joel – Introductory Notes, Outlines
- Charles Swindoll: Book of Joel Overview
Maps from Bible-History.com
Maps from Holman Bible Atlas
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah
- The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (1)
- The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (2)
- The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah (3)
- The Campaign of Shishak
- Conflicts between Israel and Aram-Damascus
- The Omride Dynasty
- The Golden Ages of the 9th & 8th centuries BCE
- Phoenician Trade and Civilization
- Trade Routes throughout the Middle East
- Elijah and Elisha
- The Revolt of Jehu
- The Rise of Assyria
- Israel & Judah in the days of Jeroboam II and Uzziah
- The Assyrian Empire under Tiglath-Pileser III
- Fall of Samaria and Deportation of Israelites
- The Fall of the Kingdom of Israel
- Assyrian Districts after the Fall of Samaria
- Prophets of the 8th Century BCE
Judah Alone amid International Powers
- Hezekiah’s Preparation for Revolt
- Judah under King Hezekiah
- Hezekiah’s Jerusalem
- Sennacherib’s Campaign against Judah
- Assyria in the 7th century BCE
- The Rise of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
- The Reign of Josiah
- The Districts of Judah under King Josiah
- The Golden Age of King Josiah
- Nebuchadnezzar’s Campaigns against Judah
The Persian Period
- Locust, Zion, day of the Lord (in that day, those days), return, I will, never again, then, now, nations/nation.
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
- Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology: Joel, Theology Of
- American Tract Society: Joel
- Bridgeway Bible Dictionary: Joel
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary: Joel, Book Of; Joel
- Fausset Bible Dictionary: Joel, the Book Of; Joel
- Holman Bible Dictionary: Joel
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible: Joel; Joel, Book Of
- Kitto’s Popular Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature: Joel
- Morrish Bible Dictionary: Joel, Book Of; Joel
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Joel (1); Joel (2)
- McClintock and Strong: Joel, Book Of.
- The Nuttall Encyclopedia:Joel
- The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia: Joel, Book Of
Commentaries & Study Bibles
- Ligionier.org Top 5 Commentaries: Joel
- Tim Challies Best Commentaries:
- Commentary Reviews: Joel
- Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible: Joel
- Matthew Henry: Joel
- Albert Barnes Notes: Joel
- Reformation Study Bible Notes: Joel
- Geneva Study Bible: Joel
- Precept Austin Commentaries & Sermons: Joel
- A Critique Of The Prewrath Interpretation Of The Day Of The Lord In Joel 2–3 — By Alan D. Cole (see online article)
- A Doctrinal Study of Acts 2:14 — By Clifford Rapp, Jr.
- Old Testament Passages Referring To The Day Of The Lord — By Warren Vanhetloo
- Duane Garrett: The Structure Of Joel
- J Hampton Keathley: The Minor Prophets
- Tom Hawkins: Joel- Introduction, Outline, and Argument
- Harold Hosch: Joel- The Concept of Prophetic Time in the Book of Joel
- Richard Mayhue: The Prophet’s Watchword: Day of the LORD
- Book of Joel – Bible Survey
- What are the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets?
- Is Joel 1:4 referring to literal locusts? When was this prophecy fulfilled?
- Why did God use a locust swarm to punish Israel (Joel 1:4)?
- How does God restore the years that the locusts have eaten (Joel 2:25)?
- What does it mean that God will pour out His Spirit on all people (Joel 2:28)?
- Will the sun really be turned to darkness and the moon to blood (Joel 2:31)?
- What is the valley of decision (Joel 3:14)?
- What is bloodguilt (Joel 3:21)?
- What is the Day of the Lord?