Study questions, maps, charts, key words, history, background, outlines, and links to help you study the Old Testament book of Job.
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- Dramatic form includes both poetry (3 cycles of dialogue between Job and his friends) and prose (prologue and epilogue).
- Appearance of God in Theophany (38-41).
- The purpose is NOT to answer our modern questions (e.g. why is there suffering?) but rather how do I live when I am suffering?
- Theme: faith upheld under adversity
- Key Text: Job 13:15-16
- Where can wisdom be found (28:12)? Answer: The fear of the Lord (28:28)
- Job, Ecclesiastes, Proverbs, Song of Solomon
- General interest in humanity and universal pronouncements (as opposed to the people of Israel)
- Grounded in a theology of creation
- Fear of YHWH as proper context for wisdom, sometimes explicitly stated, but often implicit
- Questioning attitude about the basic problems of life: why is there suffering, inequality, death, why do the wicked prosper, etc.
- Job 1-3: Prologue (prose); Conflict
- Job 4-37: Dialogue (poetry); Debate
- Job 38-42: Epilogue (prose); Deliverance
Genre: Understanding Hebrew Poetry
Background & Outlines
- Hebrew Calendar
- Chart: Bible History at a glance
- Blue Letter Bible: Old Testament Timeline
- Bible Atlas: Uz
- Biblehub: Job Overview
- Ray C Stedman: Overview of the Book
- John MacArthur: Author, Date, Background
- Joshua to Job quotes in the New Testament
- ESV: Introduction to Job
- ESV: The Global Message of Job
- NIV: Introduction to Job
- David Malick: An Introduction to the Book of Job
- David Malick: An Argument of the Book of Job
- William Orr: Keys to Job
- Myer Pearlman: Job Overview
- Wil Pounds: Job – Introduction
- James van Dine: Analysis of Job
Maps from Holman Bible Atlas
The Face of the Ancient Near East
- The Ancient Near East
- Biblical Regions
- Modern States and the Ancient Near East
- Mesopotamia: Homeland of Abraham
- Egypt: Land of Bondage
- Syria and Lebanon
- International Routes, The King’s Highway
- Geography and Trade Routes of the Middle East
Natural Regions of Palestine
- National Regions of Ancient Palestine
- Physical Geography of Palestine
- Topography of Palestine
- Cross Sectional Views of Longitudinal Zones
- Northern Coastal Plains
- Plain of Dor, Plain of Sharon, Samaria, et al.
- Philistine Plain, Shephelah, Judah, and the Dead Sea
- Arabah, Negeb, Wildernesses of Zin and Paran
- The Old City of Jerusalem Today
- Modern Political Divisions of Ancient Palestine
- Climate Patterns of Ancient Palestine
- Selected Neolithic and Chalcolithic Settlements
- The Table of Nations_(1)
- The Table of Nations_(2)
- Ancient Near East in the 3rd Millennium
almighty (31x), curse (10x), cry, cries (20x/18v), wicked (34x), sin (25x/23v), iniquity (21x), transgression (9x), sons of God (3x), Satan (14x/11v), how? (25x/24v), why? (22x/19v), perfect (3x), blameless (4x), righteous (12x), right (18x), righteousness (8x), just (4x), wisdom (21x/20v)
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
- Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology:
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary Job, Book of
- Fausset Bible Dictionary Job, the Book of
- Holman Bible Dictionary Job, the Book of
- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Job, Book of
- Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia Job the book of
- Smith Bible Dictionary Job, Book of
- The Nuttall Encyclopedia Job, Book of
- The Jewish Encyclopedia Job, the Book of
- American Tract Society Job
- Bridgeway Bible Dictionary Job
- Chabad Knowledge Base Job
- Easton’s Bible Dictionary Job
- Hitchcock Bible Names Job
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible Job
- Hastings’ Dictionary of the NT Job
- Whyte’s Bible Characters Job
- Wilson’s Bible Types Job
- Watson’s Theological Dictionary Job
- Top 5 Commentaries on the Book of Job – Keith Matheson Ligonier Ministries
- Best Commentaries on Job – Tim Challies
- Best Commentary on Job – Best Commentaries Reviews
- Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible:
- Matthew Henry: Job
- Albert Barnes Notes: Job
- Reformation Study Bible Notes: Job
- Geneva Study Bible: Job
- Precept Austin Commentaries & Sermons: Job
- Messianic Implications in Elihu’s ‘Mediator Speech’ (Job 33:23-28) William D. Barrick
- F. F. Bruce, “The Crooked Serpent,” The Evangelical Quarterly20.4 (Oct. 1948): 283-288 Job 26:13 AV; Isa 27:1
- F. F. Bruce, “The Wisdom Literature of the Bible: The Book of Job, “The Bible Student ns 23.2 (April 1952): 57-60
- F. F. Bruce, “The Wisdom Literature of the Bible: The Book of Job (continued),” The Bible Student ns 23.3 (July 1952): 99-103
- Antony F. Campbell “The Book of Job: Two Questions, One Answer,” Australian Biblical Review 51 (2003):15-25
- Donald A. Carson, “Job: mystery and faith,” Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 4.2 (2000): 38-55
- David C. Deuel, “Job 19:25 and Job 23:10 Revisited: An Exegetical Note,” The Master’s Seminary Journal 5.1 (Spring 1994): 97-100
- Russell T. Fuller The Book of Job and Suffering- A Sermon
- Norman L. Geisler, PRIMITIVE MONOTHEISM – Evidence for Christianity
- R. Laird Harris, “The Book of Job and its Doctrine of God,” Grace Journal 13.3 (Fall 1972): 3-33
- Roland K. Harrison, “The Problem of Suffering and the Book of Job,” The Evangelical Quarterly 25.1 (1953): 18-27
- Robert V. McCabe, “Elihu’s Contribution to the Thought of the Book of Job,” Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 2 (Fall 1997): 47-80
- Charles Meeks, “Will the Real Job Please Stand Up? Politico-Pastoral Exegesis of Job 38 in the Wake of Nicea,” Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament 4.1 (2015): 21-37
- Michael D. Oblath, “Job’s Advocate: A Tempting Suggestion,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 189-201
- Sydney Page – Satan: God’s Servant – JETS 503 (Sept, 2007), 449-65.
- Elaine A Phillips – Speaking Truthfully: Job’s Friends and Job – Bull. for Biblical Research 18.1, 2008, 31-43
- Aaron Pinker – Job’s Perspectives on Death – Jewish Bible Quarterly
- Martin A. Shields, “Was Elihu Right?” Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament 3.2 (2014): 155-170
- Martin Shields – Malevolent or Mysterious? God’s Character in the Prologue of Job – Tyndale Bull. 61:2, 2010
- Elmer B. Smick, “Mythology and the book of Job,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 13.2 (Spring 1970): 101-108
- Prof. Ulrich E. Simon, Gambling With Job. The Ethel M. Wood Lecture delivered before the University of London on 5 June 1980. London: University of London, 1980. Pbk. ISBN: 0718105637. pp.18
- Lindsay Wilson – The Book of Job and the Fear of God – Tyndale Bulletin 46.1 (1995) p 59-79.
- Feinberg, Charles Lee. “The Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 91 (361) (Jan. 1934) 78-86.
- Feinberg, Charles Lee. “Job and the Nation Israel First Study: In the Hands of the Enemy,” Bibliotheca Sacra 96 (384) (Oct. 1939) 405-11.
- Feinberg, Charles Lee. Job and the Nation of Israel: Second Study: At the Mercy of the Critics,” Bibliotheca Sacra 97 (385) (Jan.-Mar. 1940) 27-33.
- Feinberg, Charless Lee. “Job and the Nation Israel: third Study: Face to Face with the Lord,” Bibliotheca Sacra 97 (386) (Apr 1940) 211-16.
- Feinberg, Charles Lee. “The Poetic Structure of the Book of Job and the Ugaritic Literature,” Bibliotheca Sacra 103 (411) (Jul., 1946) 283-92.
- Green, William H. “Book of Job,” Biblical Reparatory and Princeton Review 29 (1857) 281-327.
- Harris, R. Laird. “The Book of Job and Its Doctrine of God,” Grace Theological Journal 13.3 (Fall 1972) 3-34.
- Newell, B. Lynne. “Job: Repentant or Rebellious?” Westminster Theological Journal 46.2 (Fall, 1984) 298-316.
- Parsons, Gregory W. “The Structure and Purpose of the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 138 (550) (Apr. 1981) 139-57.
- Parsons, Gregory W. “Literary Features of the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 138 (551) (July, 1981) 213-29.
- Parsons, Gregory W. “Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 151 (604) (Oct. 1994) 393-413.
- Smick, Elmer. “Another Look at the Mythological Elements in the Book of Job,” Westminster Theological Journal 40.2 (Spring, 1978) 213-28.
- Smick, Elmer. “Semeilogical Interpretation of the Book of Job,” Westminster Theological Journal 48:1 (Spring 1986) 135-49-58.
- Smith, Gary, V. “Is There a Place for Job’s Wisdom in Old Testament Theology?” Trinity Journal 13.1 (Spring 1992) 3-206?
- Waters, Larry J. “Reflections on Suffering from the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (616) (Oct. 1997) 436-51.
- Waters, Larry J. “Reflections on Suffering from the Book of Job,” Bib Sacra 156: 621 (1999): 443-451
- Waters, Larry J. “The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37,” Bibliotheca Sacra 156 (621) (Jan., 1999) 28-41.
- Waters, Larry J. “Elihu’s Theology and His View of Suffering,” Bibliotheca Sacra 156 (622) (Apr., 1999) 144-59.
- Book of Job – Bible Survey
- What should we learn from the life of Job?
- What does it mean that Job was blameless and upright?
- Was it unfair for God to allow Job to suffer over what was basically an argument between God and Satan?
- What does the Bible say about suffering?
- Does Satan have to get God’s permission before he can attack us?
- What is a hedge of protection?
- Why does God allow Satan to attack us?
- Does Satan have the power to control the weather?
- Does Satan still have access to Heaven? Why does God allow Satan to enter Heaven, as recorded in the Bible?
- How long was Job’s suffering?
- How could Job say, “Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”?
- Why did Job’s wife tell him to curse God and die?
- Are the holy angels perfect, or do they sometimes fail God (Job 4:18; 15:15)?
- What is the behemoth?
- What was the leviathan?
- What does it mean to make a covenant with your eyes?
- What was Eliphaz the Temanite’s message to Job?
- What was Bildad the Shuhite’s message to Job?
- What was Zophar the Naamathite’s message to Job?
- What was Elihu’s message to Job?
- What did Job’s three friends have wrong, and what did they have right?
- The patience of Job—why is Job famous for being patient?
- What does it mean that Job repented in dust and ashes?