Study questions, maps, charts, key words, history, background, outlines, and links to help you study the Old Testament book of Job.
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- Dramatic form includes both poetry (3 cycles of dialogue between Job and his friends) and prose (prologue and epilogue).
- Appearance of God in Theophany (38-41).
- The purpose is NOT to answer our modern questions (e.g. why is there suffering?) but rather how do I live when I am suffering?
- Theme: faith upheld under adversity
- Key Text: Job 13:15-16
- Where can wisdom be found (28:12)? Answer: The fear of the Lord (28:28)
- Job, Ecclesiastes, Proverbs, Song of Solomon
- General interest in humanity and universal pronouncements (as opposed to the people of Israel)
- Grounded in a theology of creation
- Fear of YHWH as proper context for wisdom, sometimes explicitly stated, but often implicit
- Questioning attitude about the basic problems of life: why is there suffering, inequality, death, why do the wicked prosper, etc.
- Job 1-3: Prologue (prose); Conflict
- Job 4-37: Dialogue (poetry); Debate
- Job 38-42: Epilogue (prose); Deliverance
Genre: Understanding Hebrew Poetry
Background & Outlines
Chart: Bible History at a glance
Blue Letter Bible: Old Testament Timeline
Bible Atlas: Uz
Biblehub: Job Overview
Ray C Stedman: Overview of the Book
John MacArthur: Author, Date, Background
Joshua to Job quotes in the New Testament
ESV: Introduction to Job
ESV: The Global Message of Job
NIV: Introduction to Job
David Malick: An Introduction to the Book of Job
David Malick: An Argument of the Book of Job
William Orr: Keys to Job
Myer Pearlman: Job Overview
Wil Pounds: Job – Introduction
James van Dine: Analysis of Job
Maps from Holman Bible Atlas
The Face of the Ancient Near East
Modern States and the Ancient Near East
Mesopotamia: Homeland of Abraham
International Routes, The King’s Highway
Geography and Trade Routes of the Middle East
Natural Regions of Palestine
National Regions of Ancient Palestine
Physical Geography of Palestine
Cross Sectional Views of Longitudinal Zones
Plain of Dor, Plain of Sharon, Samaria, et al.
Philistine Plain, Shephelah, Judah, and the Dead Sea
Arabah, Negeb, Wildernesses of Zin and Paran
The Old City of Jerusalem Today
Modern Political Divisions of Ancient Palestine
Climate Patterns of Ancient Palestine
Selected Neolithic and Chalcolithic Settlements
Ancient Near East in the 3rd Millennium
The World of the Patriarchs
Ancient Near East in the Time of the Patriarchs
The Land of Canaan from Abraham to Moses
Palestine in the Middle Bronze Age
ESV Charts & Maps
Genealogies: Age at Fatherhood and Death
Chronology of Noah’s Time in Ark
almighty (31x), curse (10x), cry, cries (20x/18v), wicked (34x), sin (25x/23v), iniquity (21x), transgression (9x), sons of God (3x), Satan (14x/11v), how? (25x/24v), why? (22x/19v), perfect (3x), blameless (4x), righteous (12x), right (18x), righteousness (8x), just (4x), wisdom (21x/20v)
Dictionaries & Encyclopedias
Job, Book of
Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology:
Easton’s Bible Dictionary Job, Book of
Fausset Bible Dictionary Job, the Book of
Holman Bible Dictionary Job, the Book of
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Job, Book of
Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia Job the book of
Smith Bible Dictionary Job, Book of
The Nuttall Encyclopedia Job, Book of
The Jewish Encyclopedia Job, the Book of
American Tract Society Job
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary Job
Chabad Knowledge Base Job
Easton’s Bible Dictionary Job
Hitchcock Bible Names Job
Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible Job
Hastings’ Dictionary of the NT Job
Whyte’s Bible Characters Job
Wilson’s Bible Types Job
Watson’s Theological Dictionary Job
Top 5 Commentaries on the Book of Job – Keith Matheson Ligonier Ministries
Best Commentaries on Job – Tim Challies
Best Commentary on Job – Best Commentaries Reviews
Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible:
Matthew Henry: Job
Albert Barnes Notes: Job
Reformation Study Bible Notes: Job
Geneva Study Bible: Job
Precept Austin Commentaries & Sermons: Job
Messianic Implications in Elihu’s ‘Mediator Speech’ (Job 33:23-28) William D. Barrick
F. F. Bruce, “The Crooked Serpent,” The Evangelical Quarterly20.4 (Oct. 1948): 283-288 Job 26:13 AV; Isa 27:1
F. F. Bruce, “The Wisdom Literature of the Bible: The Book of Job, “The Bible Student ns 23.2 (April 1952): 57-60
F. F. Bruce, “The Wisdom Literature of the Bible: The Book of Job (continued),” The Bible Student ns 23.3 (July 1952): 99-103
Antony F. Campbell “The Book of Job: Two Questions, One Answer,” Australian Biblical Review 51 (2003):15-25
Donald A. Carson, “Job: mystery and faith,” Southern Baptist Journal of Theology 4.2 (2000): 38-55
David C. Deuel, “Job 19:25 and Job 23:10 Revisited: An Exegetical Note,” The Master’s Seminary Journal 5.1 (Spring 1994): 97-100
Russell T. Fuller The Book of Job and Suffering- A Sermon
Norman L. Geisler, PRIMITIVE MONOTHEISM – Evidence for Christianity
R. Laird Harris, “The Book of Job and its Doctrine of God,” Grace Journal 13.3 (Fall 1972): 3-33
Roland K. Harrison, “The Problem of Suffering and the Book of Job,” The Evangelical Quarterly 25.1 (1953): 18-27
Robert V. McCabe, “Elihu’s Contribution to the Thought of the Book of Job,” Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 2 (Fall 1997): 47-80
Charles Meeks, “Will the Real Job Please Stand Up? Politico-Pastoral Exegesis of Job 38 in the Wake of Nicea,” Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament 4.1 (2015): 21-37
Michael D. Oblath, “Job’s Advocate: A Tempting Suggestion,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 9 (1999): 189-201
Sydney Page – Satan: God’s Servant – JETS 503 (Sept, 2007), 449-65.
Elaine A Phillips – Speaking Truthfully: Job’s Friends and Job – Bull. for Biblical Research 18.1, 2008, 31-43
Aaron Pinker – Job’s Perspectives on Death – Jewish Bible Quarterly
Martin A. Shields, “Was Elihu Right?” Journal for the Evangelical Study of the Old Testament 3.2 (2014): 155-170
Martin Shields – Malevolent or Mysterious? God’s Character in the Prologue of Job – Tyndale Bull. 61:2, 2010
Elmer B. Smick, “Mythology and the book of Job,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 13.2 (Spring 1970): 101-108
Prof. Ulrich E. Simon, Gambling With Job. The Ethel M. Wood Lecture delivered before the University of London on 5 June 1980. London: University of London, 1980. Pbk. ISBN: 0718105637. pp.18
Lindsay Wilson – The Book of Job and the Fear of God – Tyndale Bulletin 46.1 (1995) p 59-79.
Feinberg, Charles Lee. “The Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 91 (361) (Jan. 1934) 78-86.
Feinberg, Charles Lee. “Job and the Nation Israel First Study: In the Hands of the Enemy,” Bibliotheca Sacra 96 (384) (Oct. 1939) 405-11.
Feinberg, Charles Lee. Job and the Nation of Israel: Second Study: At the Mercy of the Critics,” Bibliotheca Sacra 97 (385) (Jan.-Mar. 1940) 27-33.
Feinberg, Charless Lee. “Job and the Nation Israel: third Study: Face to Face with the Lord,” Bibliotheca Sacra 97 (386) (Apr 1940) 211-16.
Feinberg, Charles Lee. “The Poetic Structure of the Book of Job and the Ugaritic Literature,” Bibliotheca Sacra 103 (411) (Jul., 1946) 283-92.
Green, William H. “Book of Job,” Biblical Reparatory and Princeton Review 29 (1857) 281-327.
Harris, R. Laird. “The Book of Job and Its Doctrine of God,” Grace Theological Journal 13.3 (Fall 1972) 3-34.
Newell, B. Lynne. “Job: Repentant or Rebellious?” Westminster Theological Journal 46.2 (Fall, 1984) 298-316.
Parsons, Gregory W. “The Structure and Purpose of the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 138 (550) (Apr. 1981) 139-57.
Parsons, Gregory W. “Literary Features of the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 138 (551) (July, 1981) 213-29.
Parsons, Gregory W. “Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 151 (604) (Oct. 1994) 393-413.
Smick, Elmer. “Another Look at the Mythological Elements in the Book of Job,” Westminster Theological Journal 40.2 (Spring, 1978) 213-28.
Smick, Elmer. “Semeilogical Interpretation of the Book of Job,” Westminster Theological Journal 48:1 (Spring 1986) 135-49-58.
Smith, Gary, V. “Is There a Place for Job’s Wisdom in Old Testament Theology?” Trinity Journal 13.1 (Spring 1992) 3-206?
Waters, Larry J. “Reflections on Suffering from the Book of Job,” Bibliotheca Sacra 154 (616) (Oct. 1997) 436-51.
Waters, Larry J. “Reflections on Suffering from the Book of Job,” Bib Sacra 156: 621 (1999): 443-451
Waters, Larry J. “The Authenticity of the Elihu Speeches in Job 32-37,” Bibliotheca Sacra 156 (621) (Jan., 1999) 28-41.
Waters, Larry J. “Elihu’s Theology and His View of Suffering,” Bibliotheca Sacra 156 (622) (Apr., 1999) 144-59.
What should we learn from the life of Job?
What does it mean that Job was blameless and upright?
Was it unfair for God to allow Job to suffer over what was basically an argument between God and Satan?
What does the Bible say about suffering?
Does Satan have to get God’s permission before he can attack us?
What is a hedge of protection?
Why does God allow Satan to attack us?
Does Satan have the power to control the weather?
Does Satan still have access to Heaven? Why does God allow Satan to enter Heaven, as recorded in the Bible?
How could Job say, “Though He slay me, I will trust in Him”?
Why did Job’s wife tell him to curse God and die?
Are the holy angels perfect, or do they sometimes fail God (Job 4:18; 15:15)?
What does it mean to make a covenant with your eyes?
What was Eliphaz the Temanite’s message to Job?
What was Bildad the Shuhite’s message to Job?
What was Zophar the Naamathite’s message to Job?
What was Elihu’s message to Job?
What did Job’s three friends have wrong, and what did they have right?
The patience of Job—why is Job famous for being patient?
What does it mean that Job repented in dust and ashes?
Resources: by Book of the Bible
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